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|Title: ||Energy recovery from wastes : experience with solid alternative fuels combustion in a precalciner cement kiln|
|Authors: ||Tokheim, Lars-André|
Axelsen, Ernst Petter
|Issue Date: ||2001 |
|Abstract: ||Today virtually all cement clinker burning processes take place in rotary kilns. A mixture of
calcareous and argilaceous materials is heated to a temperature of about 1450 °C. In this process
decarbonation followed by partial fusion occurs, and nodules of so-called clinker are formed. The
cooled clinker is mixed with a few percent of gypsum, and ground into a fine meal – cement.
The most modern cement kilns are equipped with a precalciner, in which most of the calcium
carbonate decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide, before the precalcined meal enters the
rotary kiln, where the rest of the burning takes place.
The endothermic cement burning process requires large amounts of thermal energy, which is
supplied by fuel combustion in the rotary kiln and in the precalciner. Coal and petcoke are most
frequently used, but oil and natural gas, are also burnt in some plants. However, due the negative
impact of the fossil fuels on the environment, alternative fuels are utilized to an ever increasing extent.
Norcem, Norway's sole cement manufacturer, has experience with alternative fuel combustion
since 1987, when combustion of liquid hazardous waste (LHW) was started. Since then, different
types of solid alternative fuels, such as solid hazardous waste (SHW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF),
has come into regular use.
This paper presents Norcem's experience with combustion of solid alternative fuels in Kiln #6
at the Dalen cement plant in Brevik, Norway.|
|Keywords: ||Cement clinkers|
|Document type: ||Conference paper|
|Appears in Collections:||Institutt for prosess-, energi- og miljøteknologi|
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